1 the Mormon temple [syn: Mormon Tabernacle]
2 (Judaism) a portable sanctuary in which the Jews carried the Ark of the Covenant on their exodus
EtymologyOld and modern French, from Latin tabernaculum “tent”, “booth”, “shed”, from taberna “tavern”
- (Old Testament) The portable tent used before the construction
of the temple, where the shekinah (presence of God) was
believed to dwell.
- 1611 ''... So Moses finished the work. Then a cloud covered the tent of the congregation, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle. And Moses was not able to enter into the tent of the congregation, because the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle. And when the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle, the children of Israel went onward in all their journeys: But if the cloud were not taken up, then they journeyed not till the day that it was taken up. For the cloud of the LORD was upon the tabernacle by day, and fire was on it by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel, throughout all their journeys.'' — Exodus 40:33-38 KJV.
- A sukkah, the booth or 'tabernacle' used during the Jewish Feast of Sukkot.
- A small ornamented cupboard or box used for the reserved
sacrament of the Eucharist, normally located in an especially
prominent place in a Roman Catholic church.
- 1997 ''The tabernacle is to be situated "in churches in a most worthy place with the greatest honor." The dignity, placing, and security of the Eucharistic tabernacle should foster adoration before the Lord really present in the Blessed Sacrament of the altar. Catechism of the Catholic Church, Part II, Section 1183.
- A temporary place of
worship, especially a
tent, for a tent
meeting, as with a venue for revival meetings.
- It was over these innocent necessary precautions that the local committees always showed their meanness. They liked giving over only one contribution to the evangelist, but they wanted nothing said about it till they themselves had been taken care of--till the rent of the hall or the cost of building a tabernacle, the heat, the lights, the advertising, and other expenses had been paid. — Sinclair Lewis, Elmer Gantry'', Chapter 13.
- A hinged device allowing for the easy folding of a mast 90 degrees from perpendicular, as for transporting the boat on a trailer, or passing under a bridge.
portable tent used before the construction of the temple
- Japanese: 仮庵
small ornamented cupboard or box used for the sacrament of the Eucharist
- Finnish: tabernaakkeli
- Italian: tabernacolo
temporary place of worship, especially a tent
device allowing for the easy folding of a mast
- Finnish: mastonkaatolaite
The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן "Residence" or "Dwelling Place"). It was a portable dwelling place for the divine presence from the time of the Hebrew Exodus from Egypt through the conquering of the land of Canaan. Its elements were made part of the final Temple in Jerusalem about the 10th century BC.
The English word "tabernacle" is derived from the Latin word tabernaculum meaning "tent." Tabernaculum itself is a diminutive form of the word taberna, meaning "hut, booth, tavern." The word sanctuary is also used as its name, as well as the phrase the "tent of meeting".
The Hebrew word, however, points to a different meaning. Mishkan is related to the Hebrew word to "dwell", "rest", or "to live in", referring to the "[In-dwelling] Presence of God", the Shekhina (or Shechina) (based on the same Hebrew root word as Mishkan), that dwelled or rested within this divinely ordained mysterious structure.
The Hebrew word for a "neighbor" is shakhen from the same root as mishkan. The commandments for its construction are taken from the words in the Book of Exodus when God says to Moses: "They shall make me a sanctuary, and I will dwell (ve-shakhan-ti) among them. You must make the tabernacle (mishkan) and all its furnishings following the plan that I am showing you." (Exodus 25:8-10). Thus the idea is that God wants this structure built so that it may be a "dwelling", so to speak, for his presence within the Children of Israel following the Exodus.
It is a crucial component for understanding many of the foundations of Judaism, such as the Shabbat (Jewish Sabbath), the Jewish priesthood who were commanded to serve in it, and the meaning and atonement of the sin of the Golden calf.
The detailed outlines for the Tabernacle and its leaders are enumerated in the Book of Exodus:
- Chapter 25 http://bible.ort.org/books/pentd2.asp?ACTION=displaypage&BOOK=2&CHAPTER=25 : Materials needed, the Ark, the table for 12 showbread, the Menorah.
- Chapter 26 http://bible.ort.org/books/pentd2.asp?ACTION=displaypage&BOOK=2&CHAPTER=26 : The Tabernacle, the beams, partitions.
- Chapter 27 http://bible.ort.org/books/pentd2.asp?ACTION=displaypage&BOOK=2&CHAPTER=27 : The copper altar, the enclosure, oil.
- Chapter 28 http://bible.ort.org/books/pentd2.asp?ACTION=displaypage&BOOK=2&CHAPTER=28 : Vestments for the priests, ephod garment, ring settings, the breastplate, robe, head-plate, tunic, turban, sashes, pants.
- Chapter 29 http://bible.ort.org/books/pentd2.asp?ACTION=displaypage&BOOK=2&CHAPTER=29 : Consecration of priests and altar.
- Chapter 30 http://bible.ort.org/books/pentd2.asp?ACTION=displaypage&BOOK=2&CHAPTER=30 : Incense altar, washstand, anointing oil, incense.
In chapter 31 http://bible.ort.org/books/pentd2.asp?ACTION=displaypage&BOOK=2&CHAPTER=31 the main builder and architects are specified:
- "God spoke to Moses, saying: I have selected Bezalel son of Uri son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, by name. I have filled him with a divine spirit, with wisdom, understanding and knowledge, and with all types of craftsmanship. He will be able to devise plans as well as work in gold, silver and copper, cut stones to be set, carve wood, and do other work. I have also given him Oholiab son of Achisamakh of the tribe of Dan. I have placed wisdom in the heart of every naturally talented person. They will thus make all that I have ordered, the Communion Tent, the Ark of the Covenant, the ark cover to go on it, all the utensils for the tent, the table and its utensils, the pure menorah and all its utensils, the incense altar, the sacrificial altar and all its utensils, the washstand and its base, the packing cloths, the sacred vestments for Aaron the priest, the vestments that his sons wear to serve, the anointing oil, and the incense for the sanctuary. They will thus do all that I command." (Exodus 31:1-11)
The tabernacle of the Hebrews, during the Exodus, was a portable worship facility comprised of a tent draped with colorful curtains (see diagram). It had a rectangular, perimeter fence of fabric, poles and staked cords. This rectangle was always erected when they would camp, oriented to the east. In the center of this enclosure was a rectangular sanctuary draped with goats'-hair curtains, with the roof made from rams' skins, (see diagram). Inside, it was divided into two areas, the Holy Place and the Most Holy Place (see diagram). These two compartments were separated by a curtain or veil. Entering the first space, one would see 3 pieces of sacred furniture: a seven-branched oil lampstand on the left (south), a table for twelve loaves of show bread on the right (north) and straight ahead before the dividing curtain (west) was an altar for incense-burning. Beyond this curtain was the cube-shaped inner room known as the (Holy of Holies) or (Kodesh Hakodashim). This sacred space contained a single article called the Ark of the Covenant (aron habrit) (see diagram).
Incorporated into Temple in JerusalemWhen the Israelites settled in Canaan they set up the Tabernacle on Mount Shiloh. There it stayed until God requested a stationary abode: "And it came to pass that night, that the word of the LORD came unto Nathan, saying, Go and tell my servant David, Thus saith the LORD, Shalt thou build me an house for me to dwell in? Whereas I have not dwelt in [any] house since the time that I brought up the children of Israel out of Egypt, even to this day, but have walked in a tent and in a tabernacle" (2 Samuel 7:4-6). Although King David himself was not allowed to build this temple, because he was a man of war, God promised that his son would build it. After King David died at Jerusalem his son King Solomon built the first temple known as Solomon's Temple, incorporating all the elements of the Tabernacle into the newly built Temple in Jerusalem.
Significance for Sabbath
The concluding instructions for the Tabernacle's construction are stated at the end of the Book of Exodus, chapter 31 http://bible.ort.org/books/pentd2.asp?ACTION=displaypage&BOOK=2&CHAPTER=31, and in that same chapter, immediately following the words about the Tabernacle, God reminds Moses about the importance of the Jewish Sabbath:
- "God told Moses to speak to the Israelites and say to them: You must still keep my sabbaths. It is a sign between me and you for all generations, to make you realize that I, God, am making you holy. Keep the Sabbath as something sacred to you. Anyone doing work shall be cut off spiritually from his people, and therefore, anyone violating it shall be put to death. Do your work during the six week days, but keep Saturday as a Sabbath of sabbaths, holy to God. Whoever does any work on Saturday shall be put to death. The Israelites shall thus keep the Sabbath, making it a day of rest for all generations, as an eternal covenant. It is a sign between me and the Israelites that during the six weekdays God made heaven and earth, but on Saturday, he ceased working and rested." (Exodus: 31: 12-17). http://bible.ort.org/books/pentd2.asp?ACTION=displaypage&BOOK=2&CHAPTER=31
Relationship to the Golden Calf
Some rabbis have commented on the proximity of the narrative of the Tabernacle with that of the episode known as the sin of the Golden Calf which begins in the Book of Exodus 32:1-6 http://bible.ort.org/books/pentd2.asp?ACTION=displaypage&BOOK=2&CHAPTER=32. Maimonides asserts that the Tabernacle and its accoutrements, such as the golden Ark of the Covenant and the golden Menorah were meant as "alternates" to the human weakness and needs for physical idols as seen in the Golden Calf episode. Other scholars, such as Nachmanides disagree and maintain that the Tabernacle's meaning is not tied in with the Golden Calf but instead symbolizes higher mystical lessons that symbolize God's constant closeness to the Children of Israel.
Blueprint for synagoguesSynagogue construction over the last two thousand years has followed the outlines of the original Tabernacle, which was of course also the outline for the temples in Jerusalem until they were destroyed. Every synagogue has at its front an ark, aron kodesh, containing the Torah scrolls comparable to the Ark of the Covenant which contained the tablets with Ten Commandments. This is the holiest spot in a synagogue equivalent to the Holy of Holies.
There is also usually a constantly lighted lamp, ner tamid, or a candelabrum lighted during services, near this spot similar to the original Menorah. At the center of the synagogue is a large elevated area, known as the bimah where the Torah is read. This is equivalent to the Tabernacle's altars upon which incense and animal sacrifices were offered. On the main holidays the priests, kohanim, gather at the front of the synagogue to bless the congregation as did their priestly ancestors in the Tabernacle from Aaron onwards.
Prayer in the Tabernacle
Twice a day, a priest would stand in front of the golden prayer altar and burn fragrant incense. Other procedures were also carried out in the Tabernacle.
Other usesWithin Anglicanism, Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, a tabernacle is a cupboard or boxlike receptical for the exclusive reservation of the blessed Sacrament - the body, blood, soul, and divinity of Jesus Christ, under the appearance of bread and wine, used during the rite of Holy Communion. In the Early Christian times such tabernacles containing the sacred species were kept within private houses where Christians met for church, for fear of persecution. In the Roman and Western rite Catholic Church these tabernacles are traditionally covered by a covering known as a conopaeum. These may be tent-like in appearance or they may resemble curtains depending on if the Tabernacle is recessed into the wall, or if it is freestanding, as in the illustration here. These conopaeae which where used are coloured in the Liturgical colour of the day or season. This practice is now optional. A conopaeum covering a tabernacle is a symbol of the indwelling of the Body of Christ, much in the same way as the Spirit of God dwelled within the Tabernacle in the Desert in the five books of Moses. This covering also helps represent the nature of the tabernacle as a Tent.
Catholics and Orthodox alike also refer to the Blessed Virgin Mary as the Tabernacle in their devotions (such as the Akathist Hymn or Catholic Litanies dedicated to Mary) as she carried within her the body of Christ (The Word Incarnate in Christian Theology) in her role as Theotokos, just as a Church tabernacle does today.
The Tabernacle is also seen in some Christian circles as representing Jesus Christ.
In Seventh-day Adventist theology, emphasis is placed on understanding the earthly sanctuary as a symbol or type of the "heavenly sanctuary".
thumb|240px|The [[Salt Lake Tabernacle, Home of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir ca. 1870]]In the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Tabernacle was used as a multipurpose religious edifice, both for services, Church conferences, and community centers, although today the stake center has taken the place of the Tabernacle for services and community centers. The Tabernacles, located primarily in Utah and Hawaii, are today still used as ecclesiastical cultural centers and for other religious purposes.
The French derivative, "Tabernac" is widely used by Francophones in Quebec, Canada as a derogatory term.
- Full color, 3d, printable model of the tabernacle
- A study of the Tabernacle
- The offerings of the Tabernacle
- The Tabernacle and its Contents with many diagrams (in Hebrew)
- Jewish Encyclopedia article
- Tabernacle model Christian Perspective
- Tabernacle Model and Free Tabernacle Lessons
- Tabernacle from a Christian Perspective - Thomas Newberry editor of the Newberry Reference Bible
- The Tabernacle model at Glencaírn museum
- "Tabernacle Shadows"
- Symbolic Tabernacle
- Blue Dye used in Curtains & Preistly Garments
tabernacle in Danish: Tabernaklet
tabernacle in German: Tabernakel (Judentum)
tabernacle in Spanish: Tabernáculo
tabernacle in Esperanto: Tabernaklo
tabernacle in French: Tabernacle (Bible)
tabernacle in Hebrew: המשכן
tabernacle in Indonesian: Kemah Suci
tabernacle in Luxembourgish: Tabernakel
tabernacle in Limburgan: Tabernakel
tabernacle in Dutch: Tabernakel
tabernacle in Japanese: 幕屋
tabernacle in Norwegian: Tabernakel
tabernacle in Polish: Przybytek Mojżeszowy
tabernacle in Portuguese: Tabernáculo
tabernacle in Russian: Скиния
tabernacle in Finnish: Ilmestysmaja
tabernacle in Swedish: Tabernakel
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